RUSSIA - SOVIET UNION
ORDERS - DECORATIONS - MEDALS
Order of Saint Andrew (Orden Andreia Pervozvannogo). Instituted by Peter the
Great in 1698. It was the
highest Russian Order and normally reserved for sovereigns of those of noble birth. It carried with it knighthood in the Orders of
Saint Alexander Nevsky, the White Eagle, Saint Anne, and Saint Stanislas. 1 class.
a double-headed crowned eagle in black and gold with spread wings, upon which was the blue saltire of Saint Andrew with the figure of
the Saint in natural colours. At the ends of the saltire were the letters S-A-P-R (Sanctus Andreas Protector Russae). The badge hung from
a gold Imperial Crown filled in with red enamel, and was suspended from a collar on state occasions.
Riband: a sash of pale blue moire worn over the right shoulder.
Star: a star of eight faceted rays
(88 mm across the points), in the centre of which was the eagle and the cross surrounded by the motto. Worn on the left breast.
Order of Saint Catherine (Orden sv. Ekateriny). Instituted by Peter the Great in
1714 in honour of the Empress Catherine. Reserved for ladies. 2 classes: Large and Small Crosses.
Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky (Orden sv. Alexandra Nevskogo). Originally comtemplated by Peter the Great
as an award for military distinction, but was actually instituted by Empress Catherine I in 1725.
Badge: a cross in white red enamel, edged in gold, with golden double-headed eagles between the
four limbs. In the centre was a circular plaque in enamel showing the Saint on horseback.
Riband: a sash
of scarlet moire worn over the right shoulder.
Star: a star (82 mm wide) worn on the left breast.
Order of Saint Anne (Orden sv. Anny). Established by Duke Charles Frederick 1735
and named for his wife the Grand Duchess Anne Petrovna of Russia, daughter of Peter the Great. Became a Russian order when Charles
Peter Ulrich (Peter III) of Holstein-Gottorp ascended the Russian throne. 3 classes: Knights Commanders, Commanders, Companions, while members of what really was a 4th class have
enamelled medallions on their sword hilts together with an inscription "FOR BRAVERY", and wore the riband of the Order as a sword knot.
There were also medals of the Order. Like the Order of Saint Vladimir, it was originally intended as a civil decoration, but after 1855, "with
swords" was awarded for war services.
Badge: a gold cross pattee (52 mm wide) enamelled crimson and edged gold. Between each limb is
a design in gold scroll work, and, in the centre, an enamelled representation of Saint Anne. The recipiants of the Order "with swords" had
crossed swords between the limbs of the cross, and wore a bow on the riban.
Riband: a sash of .....
Order of Saint Vladimir (Orden sv. ravnoapostol'nogo kniazia Vladimira). Instituted
by the Empress Catherine the Great 4.10.1783.
Order of Saint George (Orden sv. velikomuchenika i pobedonostsa Georgiia).
Instituted by the Empress Catherine the Great 26.11.1769. It was awarded only for conspicuous bravery in action against the enemy. 4 classes:
First ClassBadge: a badge of gold in the form of a cross patee (53 mm wide), the arms of which are enamelled
white. The medaillion in the centre bears a coloured representation of Saint George slaying the dragon. The reverse shows the initials of the
Riband: a sash of orange sild moire with three wide, black stripes, from which the medallion is suspended
on the left hip.
Star: a diamond-shaped plaque of gold bearing the initials in the centre, surrounded by a riband having
the inscription "For Service and For Bravery" in gold letters.
Second Class - a smaller badge, worn around the neck, and a star exactly the same as that of the Frist Class. Third Class - a gold badge (32 mm
wide) worn around the neck. Fourth Class - a silver badge (34 mm wide) worn on the left breast.
Order of Saint Stanislas (Orden sv. Stanislava). Instituted by King Stanislas II
Poniatowski in 1765. A branch of the Order was created in Russia after the Congress of Vienna. 3 classes: Knights Grand Cross, Commanders,
and Companions. There were various medals of the Order awarded ot NCO's.
Badge: a gold, crimson-enamelled Maltese cross, with double points, each point being tipped with a small
gold ball. Between each arm of the cross is the white eagle of Poland in gold. In the centre, on a circular white enamel ground, are two
branches of laurel, enamelled green, encircling two interwined S's in gold. The Order of St. Stanislas, when awarded "with swords" for
service in war, had crossed swords between the limbs of the cross. A bow was worn on the riband.
Order of the White Eagle (Orden Belogo orla). Instituted by King Lasislas I of Poland in 1325. Reorganized by
King Augustus II of Poland, Duke of Saxony. It became a Russian Imperial Order following the absorbtionof Poland into Russia in 1831.
Badge: of similar design to that of Saint Andrew, having the black, double-headed eagle with outstreached
wings, upon which was an eagle in white enamel superimposed upon a cross with V-shaped ends, enamelled red, edged white, resting upon
a star with golden rays. The badge hung from an Imperial Crown.
Riband: a sash of dark blue moire worn over the right shoulder.
Star: was worn on the left breast.
Hierarchy: Order of St. Andrew , Order of St. Catherine, Order of St. Alexander Nevsky,
Order of the White Eagle, Order of St. Anne, Order of St. Stanislas, Order of St. George, Order of St. Vladimir.
Order of the Red Flag (Orden Krasnoe Znamia). Instituted 16.9.1918. Renewed by
the Central Executive Committee 1.8.1924. 1 degree.
Order of the Red Flag of Work (Orden Trudovoe Krasnoe Znamia). Instituted by
the Central Executive Committee 7.9.1928. 1 degree.
Order of the Red Star (Orden Slavi). Instituted by the Central Executive Committee
6.4.1930. 1 degree.
Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina). Instituted by the Central Executive Committee
5.5.1930. 1 degree.
Medal of the Golden Star (Medal' Zolotaia Zvezda). Instituted by the
Presidium of the Chief Soviet 1.8.1939. 1 degree.
Gold Medal of the Hammer and Sickle (Zolotaia Medal' Serp i Molot). Instituted by
the Presidium of the Chief Soviet 22.5.1940. 1 degree.
Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky (Orden Bogdana Khmelnitskogo). Instituted 10.10.
1943. 3 degrees: 1st-3rd.
Order of the Patriotic War (Orden Otetiestvennoi Voiny). Instituted 20.5.1942. 2
degrees: 1st and 2nd.
Order of Suvorov (Orden Suvorova). Instituted 19.6.1942. 3 degrees: 1st-3rd.
Order of Alexander Nevsky (Orden Alexandra Nevskogo). Instituted 29.7.1942. 1
Order of Kutuzov (Orden Kutuzova). Instituted 29.7.1942. Extended 8.2.1943.
3 degrees: 1st-3rd.
Order of Victory (Orden Probeda). Instituted by Presidium of the Chief Soviet
8.11.1943. 1 degree.
Order of Honour (Orden Slavi). Instituted 8.11.1943. 3 degrees: 1st-3rd.
Order of Usiakov (Orden Usiakova). Instituted 3.3.1944. 2 degrees: 1st and 2nd.
Order of Nakhimov (Orden Nakhimova). Instituted 3.3.1944. 2 degrees: 1st and 2nd.